Manejo sostenible del riego en el área Mediterránea

La necesidad de conocer con exactitud las necesidades hídricas de los cultivos hace que el riego de precisión, basado en el uso de sensores y desarrollo de tecnologías de información y comunicación, sea imprescindible en la agricultura de zonas áridas/semiáridas. Cuando la cantidad de agua convencional disponible es inferior a la que las plantas demandan es necesario aplicar estrategias de riego deficitario, que suponen reducciones significativas en los aportes de riego en momentos fenológicos no críticos. Además de la gestión de la demanda, otra opción en la agricultura Mediterránea es la mejora de la oferta de recursos hídricos por medio del uso de aguas no convencionales, como pueden ser las aguas depuradas tratadas.

A pesar de la gran cantidad de agua existente en el planeta, décadas de una gestión insostenible de este recurso han provocado que la escasez se haya convertido en un problema en muchas regiones de la UE y del resto del mundo. Es por ello esencial impulsar iniciativas orientadas a mantener los sistemas naturales hídricos, así como fomentar su capacidad para proporcionar servicios, siempre desde una perspectiva de ahorro y respeto al medio ambiente. En el sur de Europa la agricultura representa hasta el 60% del total de agua captada, llegando hasta el 80% en determinadas zonas agrícolas del sur de España, como Murcia, Andalucía o Extremadura. Por tanto, la mejora en la eficiencia del uso del agua en la agricultura es un aspecto a mejorar a nivel mundial, y muy especialmente a nivel europeo y español. La agricultura de regadío, principal consumidora de agua a nivel nacional, es altamente productiva en comparación con la de secano, proporcionando más del 40% de la producción alimentaria actual en una superficie de suelo relativamente reducida (<20%).

Dicha agricultura influye, por tanto, positivamente en el desarrollo económico y social, pero puede provocar afecciones medioambientales negativas, tales como la contaminación de las aguas superficiales, subterráneas y la salinización de los suelos. Para evitar este tipo de problemas, los países europeos, sobre todo en el área Mediterránea, tienen que apostar por la innovación y el desarrollo de prácticas de agricultura sostenible. Teniendo en cuenta que buena parte de la agricultura en este área Mediterránea es de regadío, una de las aproximaciones más prometedoras para mejorar la sostenibilidad de nuestros agro-sistemas es desarrollar y optimizar la gestión del agua tanto a nivel de parcela, como de distrito de riego y cuenca, incidiendo fundamentalmente en la transferencia, formación y mejora de la percepción pública de dichas estrategias (Figura 1).

Figura 1. Esquema de las tareas a desarrollar para la transferencia de las estrategias de mejora del uso del agua al sector agrícola (ensayos a escala de parcela; ensayos a escala de distrito de riego y cuenca; formación y mejora en la percepción pública de las nuevas tecnologías).

Principales líneas de investigación para mejorar la eficiencia del uso de agua en la agricultura

El objetivo principal de los grupos de investigación que trabajan en este área de actuación, tal y como ocurre con el Grupo de Riego del Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), es el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de programación y gestión de riegos deficitarios, nuevos prototipos para la programación de riego de precisión y la utilización de recursos hídricos alternativos, como son las aguas regeneradas procedentes de depuradoras urbanas o industriales. Aunque este objetivo global tiene un carácter fundamentalmente aplicado y finalista, la base fundamental de estos desarrollos se debe basar en un conocimiento profundo de las interacciones agua-suelo-planta, y más específicamente de las respuestas eco-fisiológicas de los cultivos a situaciones adversas de crecimiento.

Actualmente, el Grupo de Riego del CEBAS es uno de los grupos de investigación más relevantes a nivel internacional en temas relacionados con el uso eficiente y sostenible de recursos hídricos en agro-sistemas áridos y semiáridos. El grupo tiene actualmente convenios y proyectos de colaboración con numerosos centros de investigación extranjeros —principalmente en países Mediterráneos como Francia, Italia, Grecia y Portugal, aunque también con Reino Unido y Holanda—, una estrecha relación con grupos de investigación en América Latina —sobre todo Cuba y México— y un fuerte peso internacional en países Mediterráneos de Oriente Medio y el Norte de Africa —Líbano, Egipto y Marruecos—. De hecho, en los últimos cinco años, ha participado y coordinado varios proyectos de investigación internacionales relacionados con la gestión del agua en la agricultura: (FP6- Irriqual (2006-2009); FP7-Sirrimed (2011-2014); DGENV-RedSim (2011-2012); FP7-EAU4Food (2011-2015); Eurostar-Iris (2012-2014); FP7-Opiris (2013-2015); FP7-Weam4i (2013-2017); Life-Irriman (2014-2017)).

En el marco de estos consorcios ha trabajado principalmente en las siguientes líneas de investigación:

1) Desarrollo de nuevas herramientas de riego de precisión: a) Identificación de nuevos indicadores de estrés hídrico en plantas. b) Aumento del uso eficiente del agua mediante el uso de sensores en planta y suelo. c) Desarrollo de ayudas a las toma de decisión basados en algoritmos de programación del riego, incorporando información de sensores en parcela y sistemas de transmisión de información remota.

2) Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de riego y modelización: a) Desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de riego deficitario controlado. b) Optimización de la producción vegetal por medio de la aplicación de modelos fisiológicos y modelos de equilibrio hidrodinámico de agua en el suelo.

3) Desarrollo de nuevos enfoques en la utilización de recursos hídricos no convencionales: a) Definición de límites y valores umbrales de calidad para la asignación de agua reutilizada en agricultura. b) Desarrollo de protocolos de riego que permiten la optimización del uso de aguas regeneradas en la producción vegetal.4) Desarrollo de nuevos enfoques fisiológicos y biotecnológicos para mejorar la producción agrícola sostenible: a) Evaluación de los procesos fisiológicos y bioquímicos implicados en las respuestas adaptativas de las plantas a condiciones de estrés hídrico y/o salino. b) Uso de nuevo material genético, principalmente portainjertos, para mejorar el grado de tolerancia de los cultivos a situaciones ambientales adversas. c) Uso de herramientas biotecnológicas (por ejemplo, formación de micorrizas y aplicación de biofertilizantes) en la producción de cultivos para mejorar la eficiencia en el uso del agua y los nutrientes. d) Estudios de distribución de asimilados y participación activa del sistema radical en la respuesta de la planta al estrés.

Desarrollo y aplicación de estrategias de riego de precisión

Ante la creciente escasez mundial de agua y los elevados costes de riego es preciso poner énfasis en el desarrollo de nuevos métodos de programación y control precisos de riego que maximicen la eficiencia del uso del agua. En los últimos años se han propuesto una amplia gama de nuevos enfoques para la programación del riego, muchos de estos se basan en el uso de sensores modernos y precisos (Oates et al., 2015). Avances recientes en telecomunicaciones, tecnologías computarizadas y la creciente disponibilidad de una amplia gama de sensores a bajo coste pueden permitir al administrador de riego acceder en tiempo real al estado del agua dentro del Continuo Suelo-Planta-Atmósfera.

El riego de precisión tiene como objetivo principal aplicar la cantidad mínima de agua que coincida con la demanda del cultivo, y distribuirla espacial y temporalmente de modo que se humedezca la zona de la raíz efectiva de la planta. En definitiva, se trata de estimar con precisión las necesidades reales de agua del cultivo. El grupo de investigación ha trabajado principalmente con dos tipos de sensores para conocer las necesidades hídricas de los cultivos: dendrómetros transductores de grosor de tronco (Fotografía 3), y sondas capacitivas para medir nivel de humedad en el suelo. El uso de sensores locales o remotos aplicados de forma conjunta pueden permitir la obtención de un registro preciso del estado hídrico de la planta y del suelo, y en función de ello ajustar las programaciones de riego atendiendo a las necesidades reales de la planta (Ballester et al., 2014; Gonzalez-Dugo et al., 2013; Intrigiolo et al., 2011; Miras-Avalos et al., 2016). La inclusión de estos sensores en un Sistema de Ayuda a la Decisión denominada OPIRIS ha sido desarrollada en el marco de un proyecto Europeo de colaboración público-privada, estando actualmente en una fase de optimización e integración en el mercado.

Desarrollo y aplicación de estrategias de riego deficitario

En ocasiones la falta de recursos hídricos obliga a los agricultores a usar programaciones de riego que no alcanzan los niveles de evapotranspiración del cultivo. Estas programaciones de riego deficitario deben realizarse de forma que la reducción en el aporte de agua no tenga unas consecuencias significativas en los valores productivos del cultivo y para ello es preciso realizar estudios específicos que nos permitan optimizar el uso sostenible del agua disponible. Las prácticas de riego deficitario se pueden aplicar de forma sostenida, aplicando una fracción constante de evapotranspiración potencial durante toda la estación de riego, o como riego deficitario controlado (RDC), en el que los déficits hídricos se imponen solo en ciertas etapas de desarrollo del cultivo, y en los que el estudio del grado y duración del período de estrés aplicado en cada momento del ciclo fenológico es de suma importancia. La utilidad de las prácticas de RDC depende en gran medida de evitar el estrés hídrico durante los períodos en los que el rendimiento de los cultivos es particularmente sensible al estrés hídrico.

A menudo se necesita una clara separación entre las fases vegetativa y de crecimiento de la fruta para garantizar que el crecimiento del fruto no se vea reducido por las restricciones de agua (Buendía et al., 2008; Pedrero et al., 2015; Pérez-Pastor et al. 2014; Pérez-Sarmiento et al., 2010). Otras ventajas del riego deficitario en una fase temprana de crecimiento es la posibilidad de conferir a las plantas unas propiedades de pre-acondicionamiento a la sequía (Álvarez et al., 2011). Es bien sabido que el riego deficitario durante la producción del vivero afecta algunos aspectos morfológicos y fisiológicos —cierre de estomas, reducciones en el área foliar, alteración del potencial hídrico foliar, ajuste osmótico— que podrían proporcionar capacidad para adaptarse a condiciones adversas. Estas características contribuyen a aumentar el crecimiento relativo y las tasas netas de asimilación de CO2 después de la rehidratación y reducen las tasas de mortalidad después del trasplante en condiciones semiáridas (Alvarez y Sánchez-Blanco, 2013; Álvarez et al., 2009, 2012, 2013).

Uso de recursos hídricos no convencionales

El uso de recursos hídricos no convencionales para el riego incluye el uso de aguas salinas y aguas residuales tratadas para el riego. Debido a la variedad de recursos potenciales de ‘agua de baja calidad’ disponibles en diferentes cuencas, es posible argumentar que generalmente no hay una sola forma de practicar y gestionar el agua de mala calidad para ser utilizada con éxito sin consecuencias a largo plazo para los cultivos, el suelo y el ambiente. Muchos enfoques y prácticas diferentes pueden integrarse y combinarse en un sistema de control satisfactorio. En muchas partes del mundo, las aguas residuales se han utilizado con éxito para el riego (Pedrero et al., 2010).

El contenido de agua residual en nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio puede mejorar la fertilidad del suelo, mejorar el crecimiento de la planta y aumentar la productividad de los cultivos. Sin embargo, a medio y largo plazo, el uso del agua residual tratada en diferentes especies podría ser perjudicial para el rendimiento de la planta (Pedrero et al., 2014; Gómez-Bellot et al., 2013). Esto se debe a la acumulación de iones fitotóxicos en los tejidos de las plantas y los efectos negativos del sodio sobre la estructura del suelo (Pedrero et al., 2014; Gómez-Bellot et al., 2015). Es preciso por tanto diseñar estrategias específicas de gestión de este tipo de aguas que permitan obtener el máximo rendimiento sostenible de las mismas (Lopez-Galvez et al, 2014; Nicolas et al, 2016; Pedrero et al. 2013a; 2013b).

Fuente: www.interempresas.net/Horticola/Articulos/

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