Protección y mantenimiento antihelada en instalaciones de riego

Las bajas temperaturas y las heladas típicas de las épocas invernales pueden producir importantes daños no solamente a los cultivos, sino también a las instalaciones de riego. Existen varios métodos de protección y acciones de mantenimiento que nos ayudarán a evitar daños causados por condiciones meteorológicas adversas.

Los cultivos son más sensibles a las heladas después del desarrollo inicial de las yemas hasta el estadio de fruto pequeño, que es cuando los cultivos son más sensibles a la congelación.

Las heladas más peligrosas son normalmente las de irradiación, que se producen en primavera, época en el que el desarrollo vegetativo en vid y frutales es importante, con las yemas ya formadas e incluso con las flores abiertas, siendo este el momento más vulnerable.

Los métodos pasivos (preventivos) son menos costosos que los métodos activos y a menudo los beneficios son suficientes para evitar la necesidad de una protección activa.

La mejor protección de cultivos contra las heladas es siempre la elección del emplazamiento adecuado para la plantación, de acuerdo con las variedades utilizadas. Normalmente, las zonas topográficas bajas tienen temperaturas más frías y por tanto pueden sufrir más daño (el aire frío es más denso y se acumula en las zonas bajas). Las diferencias en el tipo de suelo también pueden afectar a la conducción y al almacenamiento del calor en el suelo.

Otros aspectos a tener en cuenta en zonas propensas a daños por heladas son los siguientes:

  • Selección varietal. Escoger plantas con floración tardía para reducir la probabilidad de daño debido a la congelación, y seleccionar plantas más tolerantes a las bajas temperaturas. Importante determinar la fecha de plantación para cultivos anuales.
  • Mantener una adecuada fertilización para aumentar la resistencia de las plantas al daño por heladas.
  • Poda adecuada. En vides, una poda tardía es recomendable si se quiere retrasar el crecimiento y la floración.
  • Evitar el laboreo del suelo durante los periodos propensos a las heladas.
  • Riego. La protección contra heladas se mejora humedeciendo los suelos secos con antelación a la helada, únicamente en los 30 cm superiores.
  • Para una protección pasiva de las heladas, es mejor eliminar toda la vegetación(cultivos de cobertura) de las plantaciones de frutales y de los viñedos.
  • Facilitar en lo posible el drenaje del flujo de aire frío eliminando obstáculos como árboles, verjas, terraplenes, etc.

Protección activa

Aparte de métodos como estufas o ventiladores que son bastante costosos y generalmente ineficientes (gran proporción de la energía producida se pierde hacia el cielo), el riego por aspersión puede tener un uso especial como protección antihelada. Este sistema de protección tiene como finalidad mantener los cultivos por encima de su temperatura crítica (Tc). La protección por congelación puede ser:

  1. Regando sobre los árboles. El hielo que recubre las plantas las mantiene a 0 °C, pero el cultivo debe ser capaz de soportar las cargas del hielo. Este sistema proporciona mayor nivel de protección a un coste razonable. Necesita de un suministro elevado de agua a presión complementario que permita el funcionamiento conjunto de toda la instalación. La tendencia en aspersión antihelada es utilizar microaspersión localizada debido a los grandes caudales necesarios.
  2. Regando bajo los árboles. El aire se satura y ayudamos a liberar calor desde el suelo al congelarse el agua. Se suelen utilizar microaspersores o aspersores de ángulo bajo. Este sistema de protección puede ser adecuado si el cultivo sólo necesita un incremento de temperatura de algunos grados procedentes del sistema y éste se utiliza normalmente como sistema de riego.

Mantenimiento de instalaciones contra heladas

Como mantenimientos comunes en todas las instalaciones de riego, ya sea aspersión o goteo, podemos citar los siguientes:

  • En zonas con riesgo de heladas, vaciar la instalación por posible congelación. Se vaciarán también las cámaras de las válvulas hidráulicas, eliminaremos toda el agua presente en filtros, y las válvulas de esfera se dejarán un poco abiertas para evitar que se rajen. En las instalaciones donde estén montadas válvulas de mariposa también es recomendable dejarlas un poco abiertas. Con riesgo de congelación, las ventosas deben ser drenadas.
  • En el caso de tuberías de polietileno, al ser un material flexible, es capaz de absorber el incremento de volumen que sufriría el agua al pasar de estado líquido a sólido.
  • La presión del agua congelada puede causar roturas y fugas en los contadores. Se aconseja comprobar que la caseta o armario donde se encuentra el contador esté en buen estado para evitar riesgos.
  • Si se trata de instalaciones de riego automatizadas, se aconseja desaguar los solenoides y retirarlos de la parcela. En caso de instalaciones muy complejas donde no sea posible su recogida, lo ideal sería meterlos dentro de una caja para resguardarlos de las bajas temperaturas.
  • En general es recomendable desmontar y recoger todos los elementos que se puedan dañar de una instalación, ya que en los últimos años ha aumentado también el número de robos en el campo. En el caso de que no se puedan desmontar, es aconsejable taparlos con una manta térmica u otro material aislante.
  • En zonas frías recomendamos utilizar boquillas de plástico para los aspersores.Estas boquillas se romperían antes que el aspersor en caso de helada severa, por lo que se reemplazarían en lugar de todo el aspersor.

 

 

Fuente: http://agriculturers.com

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