Reducir el uso de agroquímicos gracias a la Agricultura de Precisión

La utilización de agroquímicos ha estado en el foco de la opinión pública desde que organismos e instituciones internacionales comenzaron a advertir sobre sus posibles efectos negativos para la salud humana. Drones, robots y máquinas de riego automatizadas, son algunas de las innovaciones que pueden llegar a definir la solución a este problema y mostrar un futuro esperanzador al sector agrario.

La automatización en el campo va avanzando lentamente y busca convertirse en la solución más eficiente a una innumerable cantidad de desafíos a los que se enfrentan a diario los expertos. En el último tiempo, las cosechas difíciles no han sido las únicas que le han dado dolores de cabeza a los especialistas del agro. El cuestionamiento con respecto al uso de ciertas herramientas de trabajo como los agroquímicos también han golpeado al sector. Sin embargo, un nuevo escenario comienza a consolidarse gracias a la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías. Conocida como agricultura de precisión (AP), este nuevo modelo promete reducir la utilización de herbicidas y consolidar una práctica más sustentable y productiva.

El debate con respecto al uso de estos productos fitosanitarios se recrudeció una vez la Unión Europea se propuso analizar la toxicidad del glifosato. Este producto que saltó a la fama en la década de los 70, supo consolidar su popularidad gracias a su capacidad para matar las hierbas perjudiciales para los cultivos. Sin embargo, la utilización del glifosato ha estado muchas veces en tela de juicio, sobre todo a raíz de la publicación de diferentes estudios científicos que llevaron a la Organización Mundial de la Salud a incluir este producto en la categoría de “probable cancerígeno humano”.

El debate todavía latente sobre la utilización de herbicidas ha generado opiniones encontradas. Lo cierto es que las cuestiones ideológicas han arruinado toda posibilidad de diálogo entre quienes defienden los agroquímicos y quienes buscan a toda costa, prohibirlos. Afortunadamente, a partir de esa confrontación entre ambos bandos ha surgido un enfoque más sensato y también realista que se basa en la búsqueda de alternativas. Un punto medio entre la prohibición total de agroquímicos y su uso desmedido sugiere la reducción gradual del uso de estos productos en la industria agrícola, a través de la combinación de distintas herramientas y tecnologías disruptivas. Esta alternativa prioriza la consolidación de la agricultura de precisión, para mejorar tanto el medio ambiente como la salud humana al limitar la sobreexposición química.

A través de la combinación de diferentes tecnologías como el Internet de las Cosas, la inteligencia artificial y el Big Data, la agricultura de precisión permite mejorar la rentabilidad de los cultivos, reduciendo al mismo tiempo el impacto medioambiental. Todo esto es posible gracias a la sensorización de las plantaciones que permite definir las zonas en función del suelo y así establecer cantidades precisas de los insumos necesarios para el desarrollo del cultivo. De esta forma, se aprovecha al máximo el potencial de los suelos y se limita la utilización de fertilizantes, lo que resulta en una disminución de la huella de carbono de la explotación.

No es novedad que las nuevas tecnologías permiten tomar decisiones basadas en datos. Sin embargo, este concepto supone una revolución para la actividad agrícola. Gracias a la incorporación de estas tecnologías, se puede obtener un volumen mayor de información, con mayor precisión y lo más importante, es que, además, se la puede obtener de manera anticipada. La utilización de sensores y drones que toman imágenes de satélite, permiten recabar una gran cantidad de información agronómica acerca de la micro variabilidad del terreno que es indispensable para el manejo de los cultivos. Hoy en día, se pueden crear mapas sumamente precisos, gracias a cámaras que toman imágenes en longitudes de onda imperceptibles al ojo humano. Gracias a esas imágenes, se pueden obtener datos de cada parcela o incluso de cada cultivo. Para darse una idea, estas capturas permiten conocer el estado de las plantaciones e identificar enfermedades que pueden ser tratadas antes de que sea demasiado tarde.

Este nuevo modelo de agricultura basado en la digitalización surge como una alternativa necesaria frente a los problemas que plantea el sistema actual. Desde hace años, en el sector ha primado la idea de mejorar los rendimientos a costa de un alto impacto ambiental. Pero ese sistema, basado en el uso intensivo de pesticidas químicos, ha quedado obsoleto. El sector sigue teniendo la presión de incrementar los rendimientos agrícolas, pero hay una mayor conciencia sobre los beneficios de establecer prácticas sostenibles, a fin de cuidar el medio ambiente y de garantizar la nutrición de toda la población. Un dato no menor, teniendo en cuenta las predicciones de la ONU que establecen que la población mundial será de 9.800 millones en 2050.

Para poder acompañar ese crecimiento, el sector deberá atravesar una profunda reforma que ya ha comenzado gracias a la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías. La agricultura de precisión es sin duda, un paso más hacia la agricultura sostenible y ha llegado para cambiar el funcionamiento de la cadena agroalimentaria. Aunque para eso, los expertos y las grandes corporaciones también deberán asumir su responsabilidad y comenzar a promover prácticas sustentables. Todos los actores deberán tirar para un mismo lado e invertir en estas herramientas que revolucionarán las prácticas agrícolas.

 

 

Fuente: www.efeagro.com

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