Prometedor inicio del sistema intensivo de riego de almendros en seto en el Alto Aragón

HUESCA.- Al menos tres explotaciones de almendro en seto en regadío, situadas en los términos de Ontiñena y Biscarrués, abren nuevas posibilidades a una revolución en el cultivo en la provincia, por la automatización del riego así como una mecanización de la poda y recolección para lograr una mayor producción y beneficios.

En el término de Ontiñena existen dos plantaciones de almendros de floración tardía con este sistema pionero en la provincia de Huesca. Según el ingeniero agrónomo y asesor de estas dos últimas explotaciones, Juan Torrents, el almendro «ha sido un cultivo marginal en secano, con medias productivas muy bajas de hasta 600 kilos de pepita por hectárea».

El objetivo de este nuevo sistema de cultivo «es ofrecer la misma revolución que el olivo hace más de 20 años, con muchas plantaciones en secano, altamente mecanizables y muy eficiente a nivel de gestión de riego y nutrición así como la aplicación de fitosanitarios, con el resultado de lograr muchas cosechas y calidad de producto».

Considera que estos proyectos precisan de «una inversión inicial grande» para su puesta en marcha, «intensifica la cantidad de árboles por hectárea, con lo que aumenta la calidad de rama productiva de forma exponencial».

En cuanto a la mecanización, «los cortes se realizan con discos o podadoras mecánicas» o una máquina cabalgante, «que es la misma que se utiliza para cosechar la uva en las viñas». De este modo, «se reducen los costes de mano de obra y todas estas labores son más homogéneas para tener un mayor rendimiento de explotación», explica Torrents.

Para desarrollar estas plantaciones de almendro en seto y regadío se emplean portainjertos enanizantes, para controlar el crecimiento de los árboles.

En definitiva, «se trata de un árbol con poca estructura inútil y mucha estructura susceptible a la formación de yemas de flor y, por lo tanto, a cargarse de almendra», indica el ingeniero agrónomo. De este modo, «el diseño está pensado para colocar más de 2.000 plantas por hectárea», explica el asesor de las dos explotaciones de Ontiñena.

En líneas generales, «son variedades de almendras autofértiles y autopolinizadas, que no requieren de otras especies para ser polinizadas y que cuaje el fruto», indica Juan Torrents.

La productividad del almendro en seto «es mucho mayor» que en los métodos tradicionales con un riego de goteo monitorizado, que mide valores como el caudal de agua y los nutrientes disponibles. «De esta manera generamos datos para decidir mejor el riego y la nutrición».

El propietario de una de las dos explotaciones de Ontiñena dispone de una superficie de 52 hectáreas, dedicadas a la producción intensiva del seto en regadío, con las variedades Soleta y Lauranne, ambas de floración tardía. En este caso, se trata de una explotación familiar que «apuesta por la innovación y las nuevas tecnologías» aplicadas en la agricultura.

Su propietario resalta que por la novedad del proyecto están muy ilusionados por ver los resultados tras varios años de plantación. «El tener algo novedoso te genera mucha ilusión», subraya.

«Los árboles están diseñados genéticamente para resistir las plagas con una floración tardía, y la explotación presenta un riego y fertilizantes que se aplican de forma automatizada», comenta.

Otra de las plantaciones de almendro en seto superintensivo en Ontiñena corresponde a la empresa Ecolumber, que cubre una superficie de más de 100 hectáreas. Según explica su director de operaciones, Josep Magriñá, esta explotación responde «a un mercado de la almendra que está en expansión y tiene mucho futuro. Además, nos encontramos en un momento en el que la tecnología nos permite realizar una plantación superintensiva, con 3,5 metros de anchura de la calle y 1,35 entre cada árbol».

En concreto, en esta explotación se han conseguido plantar 2.000 almendros por hectárea que corresponden a las variedades de floración tardía de Belona, Soleta y Avijor, para evitar los riesgos de las heladas. «En concreto, tenemos una superficie de más de 100 hectáreas superintensivo de almendro entre 2016 y 2017» por lo que esperan recoger almendras este año. El objetivo de Ecolumber, detalla, «es alcanzar los 2.500 kilos de almendra sin cáscara por hectárea»,aunque confían en que estos resultados lleguen de forma progresiva.

En cuanto a las ventajas que acarrean este tipo de explotaciones, figura «una producción más rápida, con un volumen más alto y una operación mucho más mecanizada. Además, mejora la higiene del fruto en el sentido de que con este marco y la metodología de recogida, el fruto nunca toca el suelo».

También destacó el sistema mecanizado de la poda, el control del vigor de las plantaciones con portainjertos enanizantes «para controlar el ramaje productivo», un riego de goteo «localizado por alta frecuencia» y más eficiente, «al darle al árbol lo que necesita» en cuanto a la cantidad de agua, y fertilización mediante la automatización y monitorización de estos procesos.

En Biscarrués existe una plantación experimental de la variedad de floración tardía Penta, desde agosto de 2016 con el mismo sistema en seto superintensivo. En este caso, la superficie cubre una hectárea y las plantas han superado las heladas.

Su propietario, José Antonio Torralba, espera sacar productividad frente al almendro de secano y si todo funciona bien, prevé ampliar la superficie dentro de uno o dos años.

 

 

 

Fuente: www.diariodelaltoaragon.es

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