Medidas y conceptos básicos sobre riego y drenaje

Fuente: www.portalfruticola.com

Clasificación de humedad en el suelo
Los espacios entre las partículas del suelo forman una red de cavidades conectadas entre sí con una variedad infinita de formas y dimensiones. Al suministrar agua en un suelo seco, ya sea por lluvia o riego, ésta se distribuye alrededor de las partículas y es retenida por las fuerzas de adhesión y de cohesión, desplazando el aire de las cavidades y finalmente, llenado los poros (ver figura):

 

Cuando los poros quedan llenos de agua se dice que el terreno está saturado y a su máxima capacidad de retención. Debido a esto la película de agua alrededor de las partículas aumenta de espesor hasta que las fuerzas de cohesión, que sostienen las películas de agua, son menores que la fuerza de gravedad, provocando así su filtración.
Dicha agua que se filtra por acción de la gravedad y que drena libremente se conoce como agua gravitacional o libre.
Si se suspende el suministro de agua en la superficie, ésta continúa colocándose entre dichos poros durante varios días hasta que el agua libre logra filtrarse. Los poros se vuelven a llenar de aire y el agua contenida en los pequeños poros sigue moviéndose por capilaridad. A a este tipo de agua se le conoce como agua capilar.
La evaporación en la superficie y la absorción de humedad por las plantas en crecimiento, reducen la cantidad de agua en el suelo hasta el punto que no se observa movimiento de capilaridad. El agua queda aprisionada herméticamente en forma de capas muy delgadas alrededor de las partículas del suelo y al no poder ser aprovechada por la planta y empieza a marchitarse.
Finalmente, el suelo queda tan seco que causa la muerte de la planta si el suministro de agua al terreno tarda. La parte restante del agua queda retenida entre las partículas superficiales, especialmente en los coloides del suelo en forma tal que pierde su estado líquido y se desplaza en forma de vapor. A esta agua se le denomina agua higróscopica.
En realidad no existe una línea divisoria bien definida entre estos tipos de agua en el suelo. La forma y proporción en que se encuentran los tipos de agua depende de la textura, estructura, porosidad, materia orgánica, temperatura y profundidad del suelo, entre otros.
Podemos resumir y englobar en términos de disponibilidad los tipos de agua presentes en el suelo en:
♦ Agua gravitacional: Agua que drena por acción de la gravedad. Este drenaje es más rápido en suelos arenosos que arcillosos. El agua esta sólo disponible en mínima proporción en la zona de raíces cuando se mantiene una aireación adecuada y/o cuando deja de ser gravitacional para pasar a ser aprovechable.
♦ Punto de marchitez permanente (P.M.P.): Es el porcentaje de humedad retenido a una tensión aproximada de 15 atm en la cual las plantas no pueden reponer el agua suficiente para recobrar su turgencia y la planta se marchita permanentemente. También depende de la especie vegetal, cantidad de agua utilizada por los cultivos, profundidad de raíces y capacidad de retención del suelo, entre otros. En términos de tipo de agua éste representa al agua no disponible, es decir, agua que se encuentra muy retenida por diferentes fuerzas y que a las plantas se les dificulta su aprovechamiento.
♦ Capacidad de campo (C.C.). Es el porcentaje de humedad retenida a una tensión de 1/3 de atm, aproximadamente, y es la medida de mayor cantidad de agua que un suelo retendrá o almacenará bajo condiciones de completa humedad, después de haber drenado con toda libertad. Aunque depende del tipo de suelo, después de la saturación, el drenado libre dura entre uno a tres días.
♦ Agua disponible o humedad aprovechable (H.A.). Es el agua que puede ser aprovechada por la planta y se define como la diferencia entre la humedad a capacidad de campo (retenida a una fuerza de 1/3 de atm) y el punto de marchitamiento permanente (humedad retenida a una fuerza de 15 atm app.).

La principal razón por la que interesa medir el contenido de humedad en un suelo, es por la de saber cuándo se requiere regar. El contenido de humedad de un suelo puede ser medido por varios métodos y entre ellos se destacan:
Métodos directos: Son procedimientos de campo y/o laboratorio con muestreo y/o secado. Su exactitud depende de la experiencia y habilidad por parte de quien los realiza. Ellos son: método al tacto y método gravimétrico
Métodos indirectos: Son procedimientos basados en dispositivos utilizados en campo que se han han perfeccionado e innovando tratando con ello de ser más precisos y de fácil operación. Estos son: tensiómetro, bloques de yeso, aspersor de neutrones, medidor rápido de humedad “Speedy”, medidor Watermark™, medidor Aquater™ y termómetro infrarrojo.
Guía para determinar cuánta humedad en mm/m puede agregarse para que el suelo quede a capacidad de campo.

¿Cuándo y cuánto regar?
Son dos de las tres preguntas básicas que se hacen en el área de riego. Para contestarlas es preciso conocer el requerimiento de agua por las plantas y las características de los suelos. Para ello se deben de estudiar los procesos de evaporación, transpiración y evapotranspiración; así mismo se requiere caracterizar los tipos de suelos a regar.
Enseguida se mencionan los aspectos más importantes y se propondrán ejemplos para una mayor comprensión.
Evaporación
La evaporación es el agua perdida en forma de vapor por el terreno adyacente a la planta, por la superficie del agua o por la superficie de las hojas de las plantas. Los factores que afectan principalmente la evaporación, son climáticos (principalmente la radiación solar) y de superficie evaporante. Ésta corresponde a la evaporación en función de la radiación solar, latitud, estación del año, hora del día y nubosidad. También está en función de la temperatura del aire, presión de vapor, viento y presión atmosférica.
Transpiración
La pérdida de agua de las plantas en forma de vapor se le conoce como transpiración. Tipos de transpiración: Raíces –→ xilema –→ mesófilo de las hojas —–→ estomas (transpiración estomática) Raíces –→ xilema –→ corteza del tallo ——–→ epidermis (transpiración cuticular)
La transpiración está en función de factores climáticos: viento, humedad atmosférica, temperatura y radiación solar.
Factores que afectan la evapotranspiración
Hídricos: disponibilidad y calidad del agua de riego, método de riego, eficiencia de riego, drenaje.
Edáficos: propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo como: textura, estructura, materia orgánica, salinidad, profundidad, fertilidad, estratificación.
Vegetales: variedad, especie, ciclo de cultivo, edad, características morfológicas de los estomas.
Climáticos: temperatura, humedad relativa, precipitación, viento, radiación solar.
Las características del clima, que afectan la cantidad de agua necesaria para las plantas, son en forma más esquemática la radiación, la temperatura, el viento y las precipitaciones:
La radiación, el viento, la temperatura y las lluvias afectan la cantidad de agua que necesitan las plantas.

 

 

• Radiación: A mayor radiación o luminosidad mayor evaporación, por lo tanto, los riegos deben ser más frecuentes.
• Viento: A mayor velocidad del viento, el suelo se seca más rápido y las plantas transpiran más, requiriendo riegos más frecuentes.
• Temperatura: En los días calurosos, las plantas transpiran más y los riegos deben ser más frecuentes.
• Humedad del aire: Mientras más seco es el aire, las plantas pierden más agua y los riegos deben ser más frecuentes.
• Precipitaciones: Influyen directamente en la cantidad de agua que necesitan las plantas. Para los efectos de riego, un criterio práctico menciona que son útiles sólo las lluvias sobre 15 mm. Es decir, si cae una lluvia de 20 mm, se considera como riego sólo 5 mm.
En resumen, los días con temperaturas altas, vientos fuertes y aire seco, provocan mayores pérdidas de agua desde el suelo y mayor consumo por las plantas, por lo que los riegos deben ser más frecuentes. Al contrario, los riegos deben ser más distanciados si los días son más frescos, con vientos suaves, temperaturas más bajas y aire húmedo.
Por otra parte, existen numerosos factores propios de cada cultivo que influyen en la cantidad de agua que necesitan para un óptimo desarrollo, siendo los más importantes el sistema radicular y el follaje.
¿Cuándo regar?
Los factores son principalmente: necesidad de agua de los cultivos, disponibilidad de agua para el riego, capacidad de la zona radicular para almacenar el agua, determinación del cuándo regar está en función principalmente del porcentaje de humedad en el suelo. Con base en este parámetro, existen métodos para determinar el cuándo regar, los principales son:
1.- Métodos gravimétricos
2.- Métodos tensiométricos
3.- Bloques de resistencia
4.- Métodos combinados
5.- Métodos basados en observación de la planta (altura, color, movimiento).
Definición y objetivos del riego
En términos generales, éste consiste en la aplicación artificial del agua al terreno para que las plantas (cultivos) puedan satisfacer la demanda de humedad necesaria para su desarrollo. Los objetivos del riego son:
1. Proporcionar la humedad necesaria para que los cultivos se desarrollen.
2. Proporcionar nutrientes en disolución.
3. Asegurar las cosechas contra sequías de corta duración.
4. Refrigerar el suelo y la atmósfera para mejorar el medio ambiente de la planta.
5. Disolver las sales contenidas en el suelo.
6. Reducir el contenido de sales de un suelo existiendo un adecuado drenaje.
Sistemas y métodos de riego
Cuando se habla del riego en general, se dice que el problema principal por plantearse es el Cuánto, Cuándo y Cómo regar.
El cuánto plantea el problema de la cantidad de agua que hay que aplicar a un suelo en el que se va establecer o se tiene establecido algún cultivo.
El cuándo plantea el problema de la oportunidad con que se debe aplicar esa cantidad de agua.
El cómo plantea el problema de la forma en que esa cantidad de agua deba aplicarse al suelo en la oportunidad que definió el cuándo.
Todo esto con el fin de hacer un aprovechamiento integral del agua para que sea aplicada en oportunidad y con la mayor eficiencia posible, obteniendo el máximo de los rendimientos en la producción.
Sistemas de riego
Una definición muy acertada de los sistemas de riego es la que dan los rusos Aidarov, Golovanov y Mamaév (1985): el sistema de riego, es el conjunto de instalaciones técnicas que garantizan la organización y realización del mejoramiento de tierras mediante el riego.
Partes que integran los sistemas:
a) Fuente de regadío (río, presa, pozos…)
b) Toma de agua de cabecera.
c) El canal principal o tubería.
d) Los canales distribuidores o tuberías (primario, secundario, terciario…).
e) Red de drenaje destinada a evacuar excedentes de agua y de sales, así como de niveles freáticos excedentes.
f) Las obras hidrotécnicas del sistema de riego (compuertas, válvulas, medidores, aliviadores…).
g) Las instalaciones adecuadas para garantizar el riego durante todo el ciclo.
Métodos de riego fundamentales
Los métodos de riego pueden ser considerados como la forma en que el riego es aplicado al suelo para el desarrollo de los cultivos. Entre las posibilidades están:
a) Riego superficial o gravedad: el agua se distribuye por la superficie del campo por gravedad, esto es, a través de surcos, melgas, cuadros y terrazas, entre otros.
b) Riego por aspersión: el agua se distribuye en forma de lluvia artificial a través de equipo especial de rociado.
c) Riego por goteo: el agua se suministra en forma de gotas directamente a la zona radicular de cada planta.
d) Riego subterráneo: el humedecimiento del suelo se realiza por medio de humidificadores colocados debajo de la planta, aproximadamente a 40 – 45 cm. También puede regarse en forma subterránea, a través del control de niveles freáticos, donde se mantiene la humedad del terreno en niveles deseados.

 

 

 

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