Más agua para producir comida en Extremadura

El impulso del regadío es un factor crucial para avanzar en el desarrollo del sector agroalimentario.

Cada comunidad autónoma tiene que trabajar con una realidad y unos problemas propios, y para hacerles frente maneja los recursos con los que cuenta. En Extremadura, una de esas realidades es el peso importante que tiene la agricultura en su PIB, el 6,1% (el doble que en el resto de España). Uno de sus problemas es la pérdida de población, 7.700 habitantes en el último año. Y unos de los recursos más valiosos con los que cuenta es el agua, uno de cada tres litros que hay en España está embalsado en esta tierra (40 pantanos y una capacidad de 14.000 hectómetros cúbicos de agua).

Son problemas y realidades que vienen de lejos y que han sido barajados de diferentes maneras. Pero al final siempre empieza todo con el agua, con la certeza de que el secano equivale a bajas producciones agrícolas, menor nivel de vida y despoblamiento de los pueblos de Extremadura, donde el 41,6% de la población vive en municipios de menos de 5.000 habitantes.

Y otra certeza convertida en dato: el 61% de la producción final agraria de Extremadura tiene su origen en el 18% de la superficie total de tierras de cultivo que son de regadío, con un total de 267.423 hectáreas de olivar, arroz, frutales, maíz, tomates, viña y almendros. De nuevo, el agua insiste y establece la diferencia.

Planes extensivos

En estas certezas hay que buscar las razones que sustentan los planes de extensión de los terrenos destinados a regadío que impulsa el Gobierno de Extremadura: una inversión de 288 millones de euros (un 30% lo pone la Unión Europea; un 37%, los regantes; un 22%, el Gobierno Central, y un 10%, la Junta) para convertir en regadío 21.000 hectáreas en un horizonte temporal que llega hasta 2026 en Tierra de Barros (200 millones de inversión en 12 municipios sobre 15.000 hectáreas), la comarca de La Serena (Monterrubio de la Serena, 1.200 hectáreas, 17 millones de euros) y en las Vegas Altas del Guadiana (Arroyo del Campo, 70 millones de inversión para una superficie de 5.000 hectáreas).

Y después de las razones, las palabras: «El regadío es un instrumento fundamental para impulsar el desarrollo de la comunidad, incrementar la producción agrícola, desarrollar la industria agroalimentaria, mejorar el nivel de vida de sus habitantes y fijar la población en estas zonas», apunta Manuel Mejías, secretario general de Desarrollo Rural y Territorio de la Junta de Extremadura. Y para darle fuerza al argumento ofrece un dato: «La población de las Vegas Altas del Guadiana [una zona con municipios como Villanueva de la Serena, Don Benito o Valdivia] ha aumentado un 7,51% en los últimos 20 años».

Los matices también están con el agua. Los presenta Julián Mora, profesor de Ordenación del Territorio de la Universidad de Extremadura: «El regadío ha mitigado la pérdida de población en estos municipios en la época de mayor sangría migratoria». Y añade que «las zonas de regadío solo han perdido un 5% de población», frente a «pérdidas del 30% o 40% en las de secano». Pero en este caso el agua no es suficiente. Mora añade que «ahora hay que dar un segundo paso, necesitamos estructuras de anclaje territorial como la industria agroalimentaria, que junto a la dinámica empresarial de estas zonas son las que crean empleo, el verdadero elemento que fija la población». Y arroja un dato preocupante: «La población del 98% de los municipios extremeños está en situación de regresión irreversible».

¿Y qué opinan los habitantes de los pueblos y zonas donde se van a derramar estas inversiones? En Monterrubio de la Serena (2.415 habitantes), su alcalde, Jesús Martín (PSOE), está muy satisfecho con tener más terreno de regadío «porque se va a duplicar la producción del olivar, y se fijará la población, sobre todo de los jóvenes», en una localidad donde el 80% vive de estos campos. En Zurbarán (883 habitantes), una entidad local menor que nació al calor del Plan Badajoz en 1953 y que es dependiente de Villanueva de la Serena, su alcalde, Víctor Jiménez (PSOE), destaca también la importancia del regadío para fijar población, «tenemos ahora 27 niños en la guardería; aquí el que no trabaja es porque no quiere», explica.

En la montaña, la Junta actúa para resolver un problema estructural, la ausencia de agua en verano para regar. La idea es trabajar para aumentar la capacidad que se tiene para almacenarla. En uno de los municipios que han padecido este problema, Losar de la Vera (2.749 habitantes), su alcalde, Germán Domínguez (PSOE), se muestra «muy contento» por la inversión de algo más de 400.000 euros en el aumento de la capacidad de una balsa de almacenamiento, «una vieja demanda que dará un fuerte impulso a la economía local».

 

 

 

 

Fuente: www.elpais.com

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